Kaplan Medical's USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Anatomy offers in-depth review with a focus on high-yield topics – a comprehensive approach that will. Home / Anatomy / kaplan olerivatcu.gq Anatomy. Previous Basic Surgical Techniques-6th Edition R.M. Kirk MS olerivatcu.gq Subscribe to. This is a legal download of an earlier version of the anatomy coloring book. For those who have done anatomy already this will be simple, for those who are new .
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Anatomy. *USMLETMis ajoint program of the Federation of State Medicai Boards of the leetronic or mechanical, without the written permission of Kaplan, Inc. kaplan lecture notes in anatomy for usmle step 1. USMLE Step I: Anatomy Multipolar Neuron Cytoskeleton _ Perikaryon .. Aussie Naturopath tells all click here to find out how ◇◇◇ olerivatcu.gq Kaplan, Inc., New York, p. ISBN: This publication is designed to provide accurate information in regard to the subject matter.
IP Exercise Sheets, created by Dr. The circulatory system includes two loops throughout the body know as the pulmonary In this exercise, read about the structures of the heart and how blood flows through the systemic and pulmonary circuit. Get homework help and answers to your toughest questions in biology, chemistry, physics, math, calculus, engineering, accounting, English, writing help, business, humanities, and more. Karen L. A: Anatomical terminology. Deserbe and compare the two main 2.
High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Location Tunic Name Composed of Innermost intima endothelium middle media smooth muscle and elastin Outer externa collagen 2. The heart pumps blood throughout the body in blood vessels. Open the body cavities on the cat. Blood Vessel Lab Exercises. Anatomy of the Blood Vessels Introduction. Apr 13, Posterior tibial artery: This branch of the popliteal artery supplies oxygenated blood to the leg and sole of the foot. In this article we will consider the structure and anatomical relationships of the aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and the superior and inferior vena cavae.
Play this quiz called Blood Vessel Anatomy and show off your skills. Dissect and identify the listed blood vessels on the cat. I only ask that if youThe blood vessels leading to the heart may be found. Describe the differences in blood velocity in large vs small blood vessels. Arterial walls are high pressure. These are the arteries you use to check your pulse in your neck. Take the following quiz on blood vessels to see what you know about them! Cardiovascular System.
What answers did you find? As the name im-plies, blood contained in the circulatory system is pumped by the heart around a closed circle or circuit of vessels as it passes again and again through the various circulations of the body on p.
Vena cava. This diagram shows the network of blood vessels in the lungs. Clear the lab bench except for one set of directions and the review sheet for the first lab exam. Different types of blood vessels vary slightly in their structures, but they share the same general features. A cut and stick worksheet with diagram of inside of heart and labels of appropriate structures. Identify all of the anatomical structures listed in this exercise.
Key: a. The blood vessels under the most pressure Blood vessels that provide the greatest resistance to blood flow The ability to recognize true statements about veins Skills Practiced.
Blood vessels are hollow tubes that carry blood all over the human body. Identify each; and on the lines to the sides, note the structural details that enabled you to make these identifications: artery vessel type. On completion of the activities in this exercise, you rill be able to: Describe the anatomical relations of the heart with other structures in the thoracic cavity.
Blood pressure is the pressure your blood exerts against your blood vessel walls as. Animalibus Anatomical Studies on the Motion of the Heart and. The information comes from a textbook that is not cited. The diagram below shows an external view of the mammalian heart. The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an In contrast, oxygen and nutrients diffuse across the blood vessel layers and.
Using an appropriate reference, define cryptorchidism and discuss its significance. Look no further than our Basic Human Anatomy series, which lets you see your body in a whole new light. Exercise is a physical activity that is completed to maintain or improve health. Describe the main structural difference betweIdentify the vessels through which blood travels within the pulmonary circuit, beginning muscular pumps aid in venous return; exercise contributes to cardiovascular health.
Their main function of arteries is to carry blood away from the heart. Name the three layers or tunics of the blood vessel wall and what they are composed of. Schematic diagram showing general arrangement of the vascular supply to healthy adult A: Light micrograph showing a thin-walled blood vessel white arrows The fine anatomy of the vasculature in bone requires specialist techniques to.
The objective of this lab is to learn from: A. To recognize a cross-sectional view of an artery and vein when seen in microscope or onBlood Vessels -. Share this worksheet. Blood Vessels. This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Conditions. Size, Location Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology tors, including age, gender, exercise, and body.
It pumps blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. You must be able to identify the vessels from models, illustrations from your textbook and from ADAM Interactive. The Anatomy and Heart Worksheet.
The arms bind to ATP and rearrange themselves so that a binding site for the B subtubule in the tip of the arm is exposed. The B tubule interacts with the binding site, causing the arm to snap back and movement to occur. Each cycle of a single dynein arm slides adjacent doublets 10 nm past each other.
They are important in clearing mucus from the rmpiratory tract. T The Nucleus. The nucleus consists of a nuclear envelope, lamina, nucleolus and chromatin.
Phosphorylation of the lamina during prophase of mitosis initiates nuclear disassembly into small vesicles. The nucleolus has a fibrillar ; center that contains nontranscribed DNA. Chromatin is a complex of DNA, histone, and nonhistone proteins. DNA exists in three forms: Histone proteins are positively charged and complex with DNA to form ; nucleosomes and solenoid fibers. Nonhistone proteins are neutral and perform diverse functions such ' as DNA repair, replication, transcription, and regulation of chromatin function.
There are two forms of chromatin: Ten percent of chromatin is in the form of heterochromatin. The Barr body inactive X chromosome is heterochromatln.
The cytoplasm The cytoplasm contains ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, and matrix. Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and protein. Large ribosomal units are synthesized in the nucleolus, whereas small ones are synthesized in the nucleus.
Polysomes are formed from ribosomes associating with a single mRNA strand. There are two kinds of polysomes: The former synthesize proteins destined for the nucleus, peroxisomes, or mitochondria. The latter form secretory proteins, lysosomal enzymes, and membrane proteins.
Endoplasmic reticulum exists in two forms: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER lacks ribosomes. It is involved in detoxification reactions—hydroxy ation, via cytochrome P, and conjugation.
It forms glucose from glycogen via membrane—bound enzyme glucose—6 phosphatase and lipolysis by releasing fatty acid from triglyceride. Other produas made here include phospholipids, lipoproteins, and sterols.
SER in striated muscle is known as sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calcium ions are sequestered and released here. Rough endoplasmic reticulum RER contains ribosomes that synthesize proteins that are delivered to Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and plasma membrane.
Lysosomes are classified as primary or secondary. The latter are formed by fusion of the former with either phagosomes or cellular organelles. Lysosomes contain approximately 60 hydrolyiic enzymes, all of which are acidic. Peroxisomes are organelles that synthesize and degrade hydrogen peroxide, initiate [3 oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids, synthesize bile and exchange of phospholipid.
Mitochondria are organelles bounded by two membranes—an outer and inner membrane. The inner membrane contains enzymes for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Continued KAl'l. A l' medical 23 Thus, transmission of diseases of energy metabolism is from the mother. The Cytoskeleton is a supportive network that contains microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. Assembly of microtubules is important for spindle formation. Intermittent filaments contain tissue—specific proteins.
Microfilaments are composed of actin. Cell Surface important cell surface modifications include the basal and reticular lamina, tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions, microvilli, and cilia. Cell Body The cell body contains a large vesicular nucleus with a single prominent nucleolus, mitochondria, and other organelles.
It has abundant RER, reflecting high rates of protein synthesis. At the light microscopic level, the RER stains intensely with basic dyes and is referred to as Nissl substance. Dendrites Dendrites are neuronal processes that receive information and transmit it to the cell body. Extensive dendritic branching serves to increase the receptive area of the neuron. The cell membrane of the axon is called the axolemma, and the cytoplasm of the axon is called the axoplasm.
It proceeds in both anterograde and retrograde directions. Anterograde transport is powered by kinesins, whereas retrograde transport is powered by dynein. Synaptic boutons -Lxons terminate in specialized endings known as synaptic boutons, which contain synaptic vesicles full of neurotransmitter.
Nervous Tissue Myelin Axons may be unmyelinated or myelinated. Unmyelinated Axons Unmyelinated axons in peripheral nerves are surrounded by the cytoplasm of Schwann cells. Myelinated Axons Myelinated axons are larger in diameter and are ensheathed in myelin Figure l Schwann cells are the myelin-forming cells of the peripheral nervous system PNS.
Myelination in the PNS begins during the fourth month of development.
One Schwann cell will myelinzite only one axon in peripheral nerves. Oligodendrocytes are the myelimfonning cells of the central nervous system CNS. An individual oligodendrocyte is able to myelinate many axons. Node of Ranvier At the junction between two myelin-producing cells. The action potential skips from node to node in a process called salte- tory conduction.
Myelinated axons conduct action potentials rapidly. Composition Because myelin is of membrane origin. Axons cut in Cross-Section Schwann Cell Nuclei Clinical Correlate The degeneration of oligodendrocytes results in many of the so-called demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis.
Pseudounipolar neurons Pseudounipolar neurons Figure I have a single process close to the perikaryon, which divides into two branches. One branch extends to a peripheral ending, and the other extends to the CNS.
Pseudounipolar neurons are found in dorsal root ganglia and most cranial ganglia. Cell body Peripheral process Figure I Pseudounipolar Neurons Bipolar neurons Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite. Bipolar neurons are found in the cochlear and Vestibular ganglia as well as in the retina and olfactory mucosa.
Multipolar neurons Multipolar neurons have one axon and multiple dendrites. Most neurons in the body are mul- tipolar e. Sensory neurons Sensory neurons receive sensory stimuli from the internal or external environment and relay them to the CNS. Synapses Synapses are specialized membrane junctions designed for the um'd. Location Synapses are either between an axon and a dcndritc axodcndritic; Figure I or between an axon and a cell body axosomatic.
Synapses between dendrites dendrodendritic and between axons axoaxonic also occur. Cleft Postsynoptic neuron Presynoptlc neuron Synaptic vesicles Figure l Anatomy 50 Wehical Synaptic vesicles Synapses contain synaptic vesicles. They consist of to um spherical or ovoid structures in the axoplasm that contain neurotransmitter e. Neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft at the synapse when synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane.
Neuromuscular Junction The neuromuscular junction occurs at the motor end plate. It is the symapse between neurons and muscle cells Figure I ACh released from the axon depolarizes the sarcolemma via the acetylcholine nicotinic receptors. It can be life threatening if swallowing or breathing is affected. These are replaced by l new receptors, which are manufactured by the Golgi apparatus and then inserted into the junctional folds.
The normal half—life of a receptor is about 10 days. In myasthenia gravis, the half—life is reduced l to about 2 days, resulting in a marked decrease in the number of available receptors. Administration of AChE inhibitors has both diagnostic and therapeutic value. By slowing the rate of ACh degradation, they increase the binding time of ACh to the remaining receptors.
The usual response is prompt improvement in muscle power. Although they do not generate or transmit neural impulses, they play an important role in the normal func- tioning of the nervous system.
They form the myelin sheaths of axons and provide metabolic support to neurons. Neuroglia of the CNS include microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. In the PNS, neuroglia cells consist of Schwann cells.
Astrocytes Astrocytes are the largest of the neuroglial cells. They have centrally located nuclei and numer- ous long processes with expanded vascular end-feet, or pedicels, which attach to the walls of blood capillaries. Astrocytes are important in controlling the microenvironment of nerve cells and participate in the maintenance of the blood—brain barrier. Oligodendrocytes Oligodendrocytes have small nuclei and contain abundant mitochondria, ribosomes, and microtubules.
Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS.
Microglia Microglia are small, dense, elongated cells with elongated nuclei. They originate from the meso- derm, unlike other neuroglial cells, which originate from the neuroectoderm. Microglia are phagocytic and are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. KAFll l' medical 31 Anatomy 32 Willical Ependymal Cells Ependymal cells line the ventricular cavities of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
They are capable of mitosis and can develop long processes that deeply penetrate the neural tissue. Schwann Cells Schwann cells contain elongated nuclei that lie parallel to the axons of peripheral neurons. Schwann cells myelinate peripheral axons. Chapter Summary Neurons are composed of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. They contain pigments such as melanin and lipofuscin.
The cell body soma or perikaryon contains a nucleus, other cellular components, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Microtubules and neurofilaments form the cytoskeleton. They are important for axonal transport. Dendrites receive and transmit information to the cell body. Axons arise from the perikaryon or proximal dendrite. They contain microtubules and neurofilaments. Rapid axonal transport utilizes microtubules. Kinesins promote anterograde transport, whereas dynein promotes retrograde transport.
Myelin is the covering of axons and is composed of phospholipids and cholesterol. Axons maybe myelinated or nonmyelinated. Schwann cells myelinate a single peripheral nervous system axon. Oligodendrocytes form myelin in the central nervous system. One oligodendrocyte myelinates many axons. The node of Ranvier is a collar of naked axon between a proximal and distal bundle of myelin that has myelinated the axon.
This process is called saltatory conduction. Some general features of all three types of muscle are summarized in Table I Table I Note the three levels of connective tissue: In the center of the A band a paler region, the H band, is seen in relaxed muscle. These bands and the Z lines are well demonstrated in electron micrographs of skeletal muscle Figure I The sarcomeres are the basic units of contraction of striated muscle.
Myosin is a molecule that contains a tail and two heads. Sarcomere Structure These invaginations constitute the transverse T tubule system Figure I Note the following: These and other differences are summarized in Table I Bands of smooth muscle cells can be found in the erector pili muscles of the skin. Klflllf medical 37 Anatomy Table Contraction Smooth muscle contraction may be triggered by various stimuli such as autonomic nerves or hormones. Muscle Tissue i Muscles are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth.
General features are summarized in Table Skeletal Muscle: Skeletal muscle has three levels of connective tissue: Skeletal muscle is composed of long cylindrical fibers that have dark A bands and light I bands. Skeletal muscle fibers contain myofibrils, which i in turn are composed of sarcomeres.
Thick filaments are centraliy located in sarcomeres, where they interdigitate with thin filaments. Thin filaments contain three proteins: Actin forms a double helix, whereas tropomyosin forms an oi—helix. Troponin includes three polypeptides: TnT, which binds to tropomyosin; TnC, which binds to calcium ions; and Tnl, which inhibits actin—myosin interaction. Myosin has two heavy chains with globular head regions.
The heads contain actin-binding sites and have ATPase activity. The transverse tubular system surrounds each myofibril and facilitates excitation-contraction coupling. Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle has an arrangement of sarcomeres similar to that in skeletal muscles, but the fibers are coupled through gap junctions.
Smooth muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels and hollow viscera. Gap junctions couple them electrically.
Electrical or chemical signaling via hormones can i trigger smooth muscles. Table l—3—2 summarizes the differences between the three types of muscles. The thymus contains epithelial reticular cells and Hassall corpuscles in the medulla and lacks germinal centers. The thymus protects developing T cells by the blood—thymus barrier that consists of a capillary wall. It is populated by most of the B lymphocytes.
High Endothelial Venules High endothelial Venules form the site of repopulation of lymph nodes and are found in the paracortical zone. Lymph Node SPLEEN The spleen has an extensive blood supply consisting of trabecular arteries, central arteries, peni- cillar arteries, sinusoids, red pulp veins, and trabecular veins.
It is surrounded by a capsule, has trabeculae, and is divided into red and white pulp Figure I White Pulp White pulp consists of lymphoid tissue that ensheaths the central arteries periarterial sheath along with the associated nodules and germinal centers.
The periarterial sheath is populated mainly by T lymphocytes. The peripheral white pulp and germinal centers are populated mainly by B lymphocytes. Red Pulp Red pulp consists of splenic cords of Billroth and venous sinusoids. Defective red blood cells resulting from aging or disease as in sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, or thalassemia syndromes are delayed in their passage from Billroth cords into the venous sinusoids and phagocytosed by macrophages lining the cords.
Lymphoid Organs Trabecular artery t? Peripheral Mg. Epithelial reticular cells and Hassall's corpuscles are located within the medulla. The cortex lacks germinal centers. The thymus protects developing T cells by the blood—thymus barrier. The lymph node has three layers: The outer cortical layer contains most of the nodules and germinal centers. Most of the B lymphocytes reside here, whereas T lymphocytes reside in the paracortical layer.
High endothelial Venules are the site of repopulation of lymph E nodes and are located within the paracortical zones. The spleen is very vascular and has red and white pulp. White pulp is composed of lymphoid tissue. Red pulp consists of splenic cords and venous sinusoids. Its function l is to delay passage ol defective red blood cells to enable their elimination through phagocytosis by l macrophages.
It is considered to be the largest organ in the body. The integument functions to protect the body from injury, desiccation, and infection. It also participates in sensory recep- tion, excretion, thermoregulation, and maintenance of water balance. It is a stratified squa- mous epithelial layer of ectodermal origin. Layers The layers of the epidermis are: Viewed at the electron microscopic level, these cells also contain numerous membrane-coating granules. Anatomy offers in-depth review with a focus on high-yield topics — a comprehensive approach that will help you deepen your understanding while focusing your efforts where they'll count the most.
Used by thousands of medical students each year to succeed on USMLE Step 1, Kaplan's official lecture notes are packed with full-color diagrams and clear review. The Best Review Organized in outline format with high-yield summary boxes for efficient study. Clinical correlations and bridges between disciplines highlighted throughout.
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